The discovery of the ionization of gases by ultra-violet light was made by Philipp Lenard in 1900. As the effect was produced across several centimeters of air and made very great positive and small negative ions, it was natural to interpret the phenomenon, as did J. J. Thomson, as a Hertz effect upon the solid
In the X-ray regime, the photoelectric effect in crystalline material is often decomposed into three steps: 1)Inner photoelectric effect . The hole left behind can give rise to auger effect, which is visible even when the electron does not leave the material. In molecular solids phonons are excited in this step and may be visible as
A neutrino electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with half-integer spin. The neutrino (meaning “small neutral one” in Italian) is denoted by the Greek letter ν (nu). All evidence suggests that neutrinos have mass but that their mass is tiny even by the standards of subatomic particles. Their mass has never been measured accurately.
The unification of forces is possible due to the energy scale dependence of force coupling parameters in quantum field theory called renormalization group running, which allows parameters with vastly different values at usual energies to converge to a single value at a much higher energy scale. It is commonly believed that this matching is unlikely
i never tried these equations untill i make my own mathematical approaches to the level of mathematical physics. i never suggest readers of my blog to not read einstiens field equations,the field equations needs higher mathematics…guys once think about the photoelectric effect ,that was greatest discovery which einstien got nobel prize,but now school childrens learn