1.Theoretical Physics

Fabric of Space-Time [astrophysics] Part – 2

What is the best gift of modern physics?

Modern Physics has given the most valuable asset to the world of science. Principles that are used to describe our nature are limited. many laws are being stated and few of them succeed in proving them theoretically and sometimes experimentally, few are proved wrong.

One such curious concept read over decades, it’s also a mind-boggling concept. It is space – time. let’s see what I can say about it.

Do you know about space?

Space which is 3-Dimensional or multidimensional quantity along with planes in their curves [space-time fabric], entities will be much complex. Few people have believed that double slit experiment of physics leads to the wave nature of light, So usual science and its thoughts transformed then.

Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime.

space is everything in the universe beyond the top of the Earth’s atmosphere – the Moon, where the GPS satellites orbit, Mars, other stars, the Milky Way, black holes, and distant quasars. this statement defines space, which is rather part of the universe, not to consider as a physical quantity.

What about time? Good time, bad time

Time is a very fascinating thing in this universe, is that time what that clock shows? or time is beyond our imagination? research says, In the beginning of time there was a singularity, where our time started. but the concept of time breaks the laws of physics. many contradictory statements are noticed to say whether the time is absolute or time is relative. but anyway modern physics and its triumph in theoretical research declared time as a non-absolute quantity.

Time and space is a continuum, we don’t have proper evidence to say time is universal, In other words, since there is no universal time. we have no time, which we can synchronize clocks. In this real world, what we also call a macroscopic world, here it’s very difficult to notice.

but man made things like space vehicles and satellites which travel in space are synchronized. For GPS to work we must make sure those are adjusted to similar bending of space time to coordinates of systems present in the earth.

to be continued,

 

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Fabric of space-time

 

© Akshay Kumar [2017]

You can Follow Me at https://twitter.com/akshayphysics

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Previous article, https://akshaykumarphysics.wordpress.com/2017/08/16/stellar-spectrum-importance-ssi-astrophysics-part-1/

We have 100 billion stars in our galaxy, In the Milkyway galaxy within its galactic arm, we can find Sirius star. The evolutionary age of Sirius star it is in “it’s main-sequence “.

Its apparent magnitude is -1.46, Apparent magnitude – the magnitude of a celestial object as it is actually measured from the earth. From the book called “Star-names and Their Meanings” say’s Sirius is also known as Dog star, it signifies this star is in the constellation, Canis Major. I’m sharing this link below, an interesting research paper. please do read it.

For Kinematics of Sirius star read full article below by NASA

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1984AJ…..89.1350E

Title: The astrometric and kinematic parameters of the Sirius and Hyades superclusters
Authors: Eggen, O. J.
Journal: Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256), vol. 89, Sept. 1984, p. 1350-1357.
Bibliographic Code: 1984AJ…..89.1350E

© Akshay Kumar [2017]

You can Follow Me at https://twitter.com/akshayphysics

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Previous article,

https://akshaykumarphysics.wordpress.com/2017/09/13/fabric-of-space-time-astrophysics-part-2/

https://akshaykumarphysics.wordpress.com/2017/08/16/stellar-spectrum-importance-ssi-astrophysics-part-1/

Meeting Bio-Physicist – William Bialek with some Glimpse of Biophysics – [4th Jan 2016]

Whatever we see in this universe, everything is interconnected with Physical laws, they have Physical existence and physical significance in detail. I was fortunate enough to meet the legendary Bio-Physicist Wiliam Bialek, in the International center for theoretical science. Bangalore. I asked few doubts about Physics and its Interdisciplinary sciences they have worked. especially Biology and physics. Please find his lecture link below. excellent lecture ever heard about bio-physics. thank you ICTS for a wonderful lecture, and also I thank William Bialek an honorary physicist for wonderful session.

Some things about Bio-Physics

How we can Classify Bio-Physics?

Astro-biophysics It’s the of the field of connection between astrophysics and biophysics concerned with the influence of the Astrophysical phenomena upon life on planet Earth or some other planet in general. also, is concerned with the result of astrophysical procedures on life on Earth, as well as effects on likely life in any part of this universe.

Molecular Biophysics interdisciplinary field that applies methods and concepts from physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics, and biology to comprehend biomolecular schemes and explain biological function in terms of molecular structure, structural organization, and dynamic behavior at various levels of complexity, from single molecules to supramolecular structures, viruses, and small living systems.

Medical biophysics an interdisciplinary field that applies approaches and concepts from physics to medicine or healthcare, ranging from radiology to microscopy and nanomedicine. See also, medical physics.

Clinical biophysics studies the procedure and effects of non-ionizing physical energies utilized for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

What is its application area?

biomolecular scale
Organismal scale
Environmental scale

Biophysics research has its research areas in Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Nanotechnology

Check it out: Biophysics – Searching for Principles Hardcover – 6 Nov 2012 by William Bialek (Author)

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DATES: Monday 04 Jan 2016 – Thursday 07 Jan 2016,

VENUE: ICTS campus, Bangalore

from the level of networks of genes and proteins to the embryonic and neural levels, information at various scales drives biological self-organization.
Living systems process this information to an astonishing degree of accuracy and generate the complex patterns of life. Physicists, mathematicians, engineers, and biologists are collaborating extensively to unravel the role of information in biological processes. This discussion meeting aims to focus on recent advances in the general principles of information processing and self-organization in living systems.

© Akshay Kumar [2017]

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What is Light ? [Philosophical view]

Light is more mysterious thing in universe…its source might be difficult to tell, a form of energy. ..to all living beings, without light no life, no sight,no evolution may be in any part of the universe. light has got most significant role in our universe, without which evolution couldn’t be possible.

In India, we celebrate festival of light called Deepawali / Diwali .One of the major festivals of Hinduism, it spiritually signifies the victory of light over darkness, good over evil, knowledge over ignorance, and hope over despair.

The name of festive days as well as the rituals of Diwali vary significantly among Hindus, based on the region of India. In many parts of India, the festivities start with Dhanteras (in Northern and Western part of India), followed by Naraka Chaturdasi on second day, Deepavali on the third day, Diwali Padva dedicated to wife–husband relationship on the fourth day, and festivities end with Bhai Dooj dedicated to sister–brother bond on the fifth day. Dhanteras usually falls eighteen days after Dussehra.

Festival of light across India and many places.

Many of worldwide religion got importance in celebration of light.Also in Egyptian civilizations used sun has their God….Sources of light and life.The figure below has clearly shows how an Nun, the embodiment of the primordial waters, lifts the barque of the sun god Ra into the sky at the moment of creation.

Sun a source of light

If we consider a future of earth The biological and geological future of Earth can be extrapolated based upon the estimated effects of several long-term influences. These include the chemistry at Earth’s surface, the rate of cooling of the planet’s interior, the gravitational interactions with other objects in the Solar System, and a steady increase in the Sun’s luminosity.Ancient days the speed and its properties are observed on the basis of physical existence…and more clearly i can say by observing nature of light.that what we see from our eyes.

Going back to ancient days..
Newton is one of them who started to observe the light from eyes differently..what a joke all we see from our eyes only..then what different newton had seen?

confused , let me explain around 1690 AD newton started his studies on light.he used the special instrument called prism.now a days prism is common.but in 16th century,newton used it as one of great science device,to reveal the secrets of light. he saw not only light,but the color full light emerging from prism.(VIBGYOR)this is what i said.in history mankind newton is the first person to observe,such phenomenon. for today its a simple thing. and started to give his conclusions.And written his book ‘Optics’.but let me give some properties which cannot be explained by just looking through naked eyes. Light can move through vacuum, Light transports energy , same as our sun provides energy to life on any planet  (if their are planets which have life other than earth ).

SCIENCE POINT : Light has angular momentum: it can rotate bodies, light being both particle and wave. It exhibits most quantum mechanical properties. Even our life sciences, polariser,  particle accelerator. .work only because of light’s this special property.Light has momentum: it can collide the particles.A special property friends my future blog will be on this,light moves with other light undisturbed..Light in outer-space moves faster than all objects in this universe.. The speed of light, its true signal speed, is the forerunner speed.299 792 458 m/s is the speed of light in vaccum. and 30c.m/n.s (30 centimeter per nano seconds.1/1000000000.The proper speed of light.another one a Shadows can move without any speed limit.

Light moves in a straight line when far from matter.High-intensity light is a wave.(credit:motion mountain_relativity),Light beams are approximations when the wavelength is neglected.In matter, both the forerunner speed and the energy speed of light are lower than in vacuum.In matter, the group velocity of light pulses can be zero, positive, negative or infinite.these are the properties of light which are gifts of quantum physics.or modern physics..the era of quantum physics was began in 1905(see my previous post for more information)this changed the world into quantum world.and some property of light is very strange and it was an miracle thing for ancients,hence may be miracle must be reveled as common things.

Light in Science

 

© Akshay Kumar [2017]

You can Follow Me at https://twitter.com/akshayphysics

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THEORETICAL PHYSICS – 1

General Principle of Relativity to solve The problem of Gravitation part – 1

I mostly Given importance to Special theory of relativity when i was studying these concepts. but its obvious we like simple things, confused ,yes i proclaim that General theory of relativity is not general as it states.

Einstein writes : If the reader has followed all our previous considerations, he will have no further difficulty in understanding the methods leading to the solution of the problem of gravitation. its because one needs previous theory and concepts which are as follows

  • The Equality of Inertial and Gravitational Mass as an Argument for the General
  • Postulate of Relativity.
  • The Relativity of Simultaneity.
  • Theorem of the Addition of Velocities.
  • On the Relativity of the Conception of Distance.
  • The Lorentz Transformation.
  • The Gravitational Field.
  • The Behavior of Measuring−Rods and Clocks in Motion.
  • Experience and the Special Theory of Relativity.
  • Minkowski’s Four−dimensional Space.
  • The General Theory of Relativity.
  • Special and General Principle of Relativity.

Let me start to explain the  Galileian relativity  :  The Fundamental law states that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames. We need an reference of point to measure anything in universe, Its sometimes impossible to do without the reference. one of the First things of relativity study mere research without actually knowing the importance was described in “Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems”.

He used this as the example himself given as travelling at constant velocity, without rocking, on a smooth sea; any observer doing experiments below the deck would not be able to tell whether the ship was moving or stationary.

If Two inertial frames say “A” having position coordinates r = (x, y, z) as its position co-ordinates.  and Time (t) . similarly A’. We can synchronize the clock in the two frames so that we can assume t = t’ . Suppose A’ is in relative uniform motion to A with velocity v. Consider a point object whose position is given by r’ (t) = r(t) in A.

capture

The velocity of the particle is given by the time derivative of the position. Another differentiation gives the acceleration in the two frames.

Italian scientist and scholar Galileo made pioneering observations that laid the foundation for modern physics and astronomy. Born on February 15, 1564, in Pisa, Italy, Galileo Galilei was a mathematics professor who made pioneering observations of nature with long-lasting implications for the study of physics. He also constructed a telescope and supported the Copernican theory, which supports a sun-centered solar system. Galileo was accused twice of heresy by the church for his beliefs, and wrote books on his ideas. He died in Arcetri, Italy, on January 8, 1642.

many more to write, will post in my next post.

© Akshay Kumar [2017]

You can Follow Me at : https://twitter.com/akshayphysics

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METAPHYSICS

Plato – His Life and Quotes

Do you know these are some of the thinkers who had a one single tool to crack mysterious things of universe and tactics of nature, It’s Curiosity and questioning Philosophy behind things which occur in our daily life? Now we are living in modern and civilized environment here everything is predetermined and invented so far. But Plato’s age was an just beginning of human evolution. A modern cult is much different than their lifestyle.

One of the greatest philosophers to have ever lived on Earth was Plato. Even Plato’s mother, Perictione, is believed to be a descendant of an aristocrat named Solon. According to historians, Solon was a Greek statesman from 6th century BCE.

Greek philosopher and thinker Plato founded the Academy and is the author of philosophical works. Very less is gained about his life. Our today’s history evaluations tell Plato’s birth was around 428 B.C.E., but more modern scholars, outlining later events in his life, believe he was born between 424 and 423 B.C.E.

His works have heavily influenced the western culture. All his writings engrossed on a wide range of subjects counting philosophy of language, epistemology, cosmology, theology, deliberations on aesthetics, beauty, justice, equality and yes, political philosophy. Whatever information we have today about this great philosopher comes from historians who somehow achieved to come up with a detailed building of his live from his works. The problem was that of the lack of primary and dependable sources to provide an account of Plato’s life. We do not claim any authenticity about whatever we write here about Plato.

Plato’s impact on philosophy and the nature of humans has had a lasting influence far beyond his motherland of Greece. His work covered a broad spectrum of interests and ideas: mathematics, science and nature, morals and political theory. Socrates (yet another great philosopher) was his teacher and he was in turn, teacher of another great philosopher named Aristotle.

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I personally like this quotes of plato…

“Every heart sings a song, incomplete, until another heart whispers back. Those who wish to sing always find a song. At the touch of a lover, everyone becomes a poet.” ― Plato

Only the dead have seen the end of war.
Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, and charm and gaiety to life and to everything.
Be kind, for everyone you meet is fighting a hard battle.
Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say something.
The measure of a man is what he does with power.
Your silence gives consent.
We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.
You can discover more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation.
At the touch of love everyone becomes a poet.
One of the penalties for refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being governed by your inferiors.

 

 

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