INTRODUCTION ON STRING THEORY

Our universe is having a mysterious things.
I often think how this universe formed.
What it consists?
What is the smallest thing which exist?
What constitutes those things?
So new theory emerged..
Its “string theory”.
The earliest version of string theory, bosonic string theory, incorporated only the class of particles known as bosons. It was then developed into superstring theory, which posits that a connection – a “supersymmetry” – exists between bosons and the class of particles called fermions.
String theory requires the existence of extra spatial dimensions for its mathematical consistency.
In realistic physical models constructed from string theory, these extra dimensions are typically compactified to extremely small scales.
Its importance is miracle.
String theory aims to explain all types of observed elementary particles using quantum states of these strings. In addition to the particles postulated by the standard model of particle physics, string theory naturally incorporates gravity and so is a candidate for a theory of everything, a self-contained mathematical model that describes all fundamental forces and forms of matter.
Besides this potential role, string theory isIn addition to influencing research in theoretical physics, string theory has stimulated a number of major developments in pure mathematics.
Like many developing ideas in theoretical physics, string theory does not at present have a mathematically rigorous formulation in which all of its concepts can be defined precisely.
As a result, physicists who study string theory are often guided by physical intuition to conjecture relationships between the seemingly different mathematical structures that are used to formalize different parts of the theory. These conjectures are later proved by mathematicians, and in this way, string theory has served as a source of new ideas in pure mathematics
now widely used as a theoretical tool and has shed light on many aspects of quantum field theory and quantum gravity.first studied in the late 1960s as a theory of the strong nuclear force before being abandoned in favor of the theory of quantum chromodynamics. Subsequently, it was realized that the very properties that made string theory unsuitable as a theory of nuclear physics made it a promising candidate for a quantum theory of gravity. Five consistent versions of string theory were developed until it was realized in the mid-1990s that they were different limits of a conjectured single 11-dimensional theory now known a M-theory.

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